5. Russian Empire (1721–1917)
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia, and the predecessor of the Soviet Union. At one point in 1866, it stretched from eastern Europe, across Asia, and into North America. At the beginning of the 19th century, Russia was the largest country in the world, extending from the Arctic Ocean to the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east.
- It was the second largest contiguous empire the world has ever seen, surpassed only by the Mongol Empire, and the third largest empire the world has ever seen, surpassed only by the British Empire and the Mongol Empire .
- The household servants or dependents attached to the personal service were merely set free, while the landed peasants received their houses and orchards, and allotments of arable land.
4. Mongol Empire (1206–1368)
The Mongol Empire was an empire from the 13th and 14th century spanning from Eastern Europe across Asia. It emerged from the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes in modern day Mongolia, and grew through invasions, after Genghis Khan had been proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. At its greatest extent it stretched from the Danube to the Sea of Japan (or East Sea) and from the Arctic to Camboja, covering over 24,000,000 km2 , 22% of the Earth’s total land area, and held sway over a population of over 100 million people. It is often identified as the ” Mongol World Empire ” because it spanned much of Eurasia. However, the empire began to split following the succession war in 1260–1264. By 1294, he Mongol Empire had already fractured into four separate empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives.
- It is the largest contiguous empire in the history of the world, and the second largest empire in history, after the British Empire.
- Under the Mongols new technologies, various commodities and ideologies were disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia.
3. Mughal Empire (1526–1858)
The Mughal Empire was an Islamic imperial power that ruled a large portion of Indian subcontinent which began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of South Asia by the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and ended in the mid-19th century.The Mughal Emperors were descendants of the Timurids of Turkistan, and at the height of their power around 1700, they controlled most of the Indian Subcontinent—extending from Bengal in the east to Balochistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south. Its population at that time has been estimated as between 110 and 130 million, over a territory of over 4 million sq. km (1.5 million sq. mi.).The “classic period” of the Empire started in 1556 with the accession of Jalaluddin Mohammad Akbar, better known as Akbar the Great. It ended with the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, although the Empire continued for another 150 years.
- The Empire was marked by a highly centralized administration connecting the different regions.
- All the significant monuments of the Mughals, their most visible legacy, date to this period which was characterised by the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic and architectural results. A major Mughal contribution to the Indian Subcontinent was their unique architecture. Many monuments were built by the Muslim emperors, especially Shahjahan, during the Mughal era including the UNESCO World Heritage Site Taj Mahal, which is known to be one of the finer examples of Mughal architecture.
- The Indian economy remained as prosperous under the Mughals as it was, because of the creation of a road system and a uniform currency, together with the unification of the country. Manufactured goods and peasant-grown cash crops were sold throughout the world.
- n the Mughal Empire, the 16th and 17th centuries saw a synthesis of Muslim scientists who are the pioneers of modern science.
- It remained strong for longest duration above other empires and 4th largest population as compared to all other kingdoms – 175.0 million in 1700.
2. British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom, that had originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1922, the British Empire held sway over a population of about 458 million people, one-quarter of the world’s population at the time, and covered more than 13,000,000 square miles (33,670,000 km2): approximately a quarter of the Earth’s total land area. As a result, its political, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, it was often said that “the sun never sets on the British Empire” because its span across the globe ensured that the sun was always shining on at least one of its numerous territories.
- It was the largest empire by landmass covering 33.7 million km2 (1922)
- It was the largest empire by population.
- It had the second largest GDP size of $683.3 billion (in 1938) after the US in 1945
- It had the largest percent of world GDP 35.9% ($399 billionout of $1,111 billion in 1870)
- It had the largest military of all times.
- During the rule, people were quite unsatisfactory with the government and many disputes arose therefore the empire was soon brought done like house of cards as soon as it emerged, therefore although being largest, it is on second number.
1. Ottoman Empire (1299–1923)
The Ottoman Empire also known by its contemporaries as the Turkish Empire. was an Islamic empire that lasted from 1299 to November 1, July 24, 1923 It was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey,which was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923. At the height of its power (16th–17th centuries), the empire spanned three continents, controlling much of Western Asia, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, and North Africa. The Ottoman Empire contained 29 provinces and numerous vassal states, some of which were later absorbed into the empire, while others gained various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
- It existed at the globe for the longest period of time for 7 centuries.
- The Ottoman legal system accepted the religious law over its subjects. The Ottoman Empire was always organized around a system of local jurisprudence.
- The Ottoman Empire was, in principle, tolerant towards Christians and Jews.
- Numerous traditions and cultural traits of this previous empire (in fields such as architecture, cuisine, music, leisure and government) were adopted by the Ottomans, who elaborated them into new forms and blended them with the characteristics of the ethnic and religious groups living within the Ottoman territories, which resulted in a new and distinctively Ottoman cultural identity.
- By developing commercial centres and routes, encouraging people to extend the area of cultivated land in the country and international trade through its dominions, the state performed basic economic functions in the Empire.
- The empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for seven centuries.
Info Courtesy: Wikipedia