5. Diabetic Retinopathy
Diabetic Retinopathy is a disease of the eye in which damage to the retina is caused due to complications in diabetes mellitus. Retina is the part of eye that “takes pictures” and sends the images to brain. Diabetic Retinopathy eventually leads to blindness. The problem occurs if the blood sugar levels are not maintained within safe limits. New blood vessels start developing inside the eye which are weak and may burst anytime. This blood comes in the eye and affects the vision. The bleeding can also cause scar tissue to form, which can pull on the retina and cause the retina to move away from the wall of the eye. This is called retina detachment. Unfortunately the disease shows no symptoms until the vision has been affected. A regular eye examination by an eye specialist is the only way to detect and treat diabetic retinopathy in time.
4. Carotid Artery Dissection
Carotid Artery Dissection
The carotid arteries are two large blood vessels that run through the neck, taking blood to the brain. This is where thinking, speech, personality, and sensory and motor functions reside. They can become narrowed from plaque buildup, hence making strokes more likely. Carotid artery dissection is a separation of the layers of the artery wall supplying oxygen-bearing blood to the head and brain, and is the most common cause of stroke in young adults. Spontaneous Carotid Dissection can occur, most frequently in the fifth decade of life. Some dissections are asymptomatic or cause only minor transient symptoms and remain undiagnosed.
3. Chronic Myelogenous (or Myeloid) Leukemia
Philadelphia chromosome in Chronic Myelogenous (or Myeloid) Leukemia
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) is a type of cancer and a blood disorder in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells. The disease usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in children. The white blood cells are unhealthy known as leukemic cells. CML may or not show any symptoms. The possible symptoms are fatigue, weight loss for no known reason, night sweats,f ever and pain or a feeling of fullness below the ribs on the left side. CML causes “Philadelphia Chromosome”, a disorder in which part of the DNA from one chromosome moves to another chromosome. The cancer has 3 stages, namely: Chronic Phase, Accelerated Phase and Blastic Phase. Treatments include: Surgery, Chemotherapy, Donor Lymphocyte Infusion (DLI), High-Dose Chemotherapy with Stem Cell Transplant, Biologic Therapy and Targeted Therapy.
2. Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is a very dangerous asymptomatic disease that occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix grow out of control where cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The cancer remains benign and unnoticed till it’s very advanced stages but fortunately cervical cancer can often be cured when found early. Regular Pap tests cause early detection and treatment of the deadly disease. The cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or HPV. HPV is transmitted by having sexual contact with a partner who has it. Some symptoms include: Bleeding from the vagina that is not normal, or a change in your menstrual cycle that you can’t explain, bleeding when something comes in contact with your cervix, such as during sex or when you put in a diaphragm, pain during sex and vaginal discharge that is tinged with blood.
AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The virus weakens a person’s ability to fight infections and cancer. HIV transmission is caused due to unprotected sex or with needle sharing. A person may have HIV symptoms or AIDS symptoms without knowing it until they get HIV testing.